Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts, 2nd Edition

Raphael, D., Bryant, T., Mikkonen, J. and Raphael, A. (2020). Social Determinants of Health: The Canadian Facts. Oshawa: Ontario Tech University Faculty of Health Sciences and Toronto: York University School of Health Policy and Management.


Dennis Raphael, PhD (Toronto, Canada) is a Professor of Health Policy and Management at the School of Health Policy and Management at York University. He is the editor of Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives (2016, 3rd edition), Health Promotion and Quality of Life in Canada: Essential Readings (2010); Immigration, Public Policy, and Health: Newcomer Experiences in Developed Nations (2016) and Tackling Health Inequalities: Lessons from International Experiences (2012); co-editor of Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care (2019, 3rd edition). He is author of About Canada: Health and Illness (2016, 2nd edition) and Poverty in Canada: Implications for Health and Quality of Life (2020, 3rd edition) and co-author with Toba Bryant of The Politics of Health in the Canadian Welfare State (2020). He manages the Social Determinants of Health Listserv at York University. Contact: draphael [at]

Toba Bryant, PhD (Toronto, Canada) is an Associate Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, at Ontario Tech University in Oshawa, Ontario. She is author of Health Policy in Canada (2016, 2nd  edition), and co-author with Dennis Raphael of The Politics of Health in the Canadian Welfare State. Dr. Bryant is co-editor of Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care (2019, 3rd edition). She has published numerous book chapters and articles on policy change, housing as a social determinant of health, health within a population health perspective, the welfare state, health equity and community quality of life. Her most recent work is concerned with the effects of plant closures on the health and well-being of laid-off workers and their communities in Oshawa and how these communities are responding to these threats in an age of economic globalization. Contact: toba.bryant [at]

Juha Mikkonen, PhD (Helsinki, Finland) is a public policy professional and social psychologist with 18 years of professional experience. Dr. Mikkonen has held leadership positions in numerous non-profit organizations to promote health and well-being. He is Executive Director of the Finnish Association for Substance Abuse Prevention EHYT. He received his PhD in Health Policy and Equity from York University and a Master’s Degree in Social Sciences from the University of Helsinki. Dr. Mikkonen is a practice-oriented expert in substance abuse prevention, health equity, intersectoral action, and the social determinants of health. Previously, as a consultant, Dr. Mikkonen provided expert advice to think tanks and international organizations including the World Health Organization. His public policy contributions include over 80 articles, books, reports, and professional presentations. Contact: mikkonen [at]

Alexander Raphael (Toronto, Canada) is a third-year photography student in the Bachelor of Fine Arts Image Arts Program at Ryerson University in Toronto. Mr. Raphael has served as the official photographer for the Society for the Advancement of Science in Africa’s 2019 Conference in Toronto and the 2018 Restructuring Work: A Discussion on the Topic of Labour and the Organization of Global Capitalism Conference in Oshawa. He has a professional photography practice in Toronto. Contact: alexraph62 [at]

Julia Fursova, PhD, Environmental Studies, is a Post-Doctoral Fellow in Evaluation, Faculty of Education, York University. Her doctoral research examined community action for health justice in urban environments with the focus on the role of non-profit organizations in advancing community participation. She contributed the section on Geography.

Morris DC Komakech, MPH, is a PhD Candidate in Health Policy and Equity at York University. His research interests include the social determinants of health, public policy, health equity and the political economy of health. He contributed the section on Race.

Ronald Labonté, PhD, is Distinguished Professor and former Canada Research Chair in Globalization and Health Equity in the School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa; and Professor, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Australia. He contributed the section on Globalization.

Ambreen Sayani, MD, PhD, Health Policy and Equity, holds a Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded Postdoctoral Fellowship in Patient-Oriented research at Women’s College Hospital, Toronto and is a Research Affiliate at the MAP-Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St. Michael’s Hospital. She contributed the section on Immigration.